CHIP - List of symbols/indications of danger, risk and safety phrases

Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002

CHIP is the law that applies to suppliers of dangerous chemicals. Its purpose is to protect people and the environment from the effects of those chemicals by requiring suppliers to provide information about the dangers and to package them safely.

CHIP requires the supplier of a dangerous chemical to: * identify the hazards (dangers) of the chemical. This is known as ‘classification’; * give information about the hazards to their customers. Suppliers usually provide this information on the package itself (eg a label) and, if supplied for use at work, in a safety data sheet (SDS); * package the chemical safely. ‘Supply’ means making a chemical available to another person.

Manufacturers, importers, distributors, wholesalers and retailers are all examples of suppliers. CHIP applies to most chemicals but not all. The details of the scope are set out in the Regulations. Some chemicals, such as cosmetics and medicines, are outside the scope and have their own specific laws. However, biocides and plant protection products had to be classified and labelled according to CHIP from July 2004.

Symbols and Phrases

SymbolAbbreviationHazardDescription of hazard
(Physicochemical)
explosive E explosive Chemicals that explode.
oxidising O oxidising Chemicals that react exothermically with other chemicals.
extremely flammable F+ extremely flammable Chemicals that have an extremely low flash point and boiling point, and gases that catch fire in contact with air.
highly flammable F highly flammable Chemicals that may catch fire in contact with air, only need brief contact with an ignition source, have a very low flash point or evolve highly flammable gases in contact with water.
(Health)
very toxic T+ very toxic Chemicals that at very low levels cause damage to health.
toxic T toxic Chemicals that at low levels cause damage to health.
carcinogen Carc Cat 1 category 1 carcinogens Chemicals that may cause cancer or increase its incidence.
carcinogen 1 Carc Cat 2 category 2 carcinogens
carcinogen 2 Carc Cat 3 category 3 carcinogens
mutagen Muta Cat 1 category 1 mutagens Chemicals that induce heritable genetic defects or increase their incidence.
mutagen 1 Muta Cat 2 category 2 mutagens
mutagen 2 Muta Cat 3 category 3 mutagens
toxic Repr Cat 1 category 1 reproductive toxins Chemicals that produce or increase the incidence of non-heritable effects in progeny and/or an impairment in reproductive functions or capacity.
toxic Repr Cat 2 category 2 reproductive toxins
harmful Repr Cat 3 category 3 reproductive toxins
harmful Xn harmful Chemicals that may cause damage to health.
corrosive C corrosive Chemicals that may destroy living tissue on contact.
irritant Xi irritant Chemicals that may cause inflammation to the skin or other mucous membranes.
(Environmental)
dangerous for the environment N dangerous for the environment Chemicals that may present an immediate or delayed danger to one or more components of the environment

Risk phrases

R1 Explosive when dry
R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
R4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds
R5 Heating may cause an explosion
R6 Explosive with or without contact with air
R7 May cause fire
R8 Contact with combustible material may cause fire
R9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material
R10 Flammable
R11 Highly flammable
R12 Extremely flammable
R14 Reacts violently with water
R14/15 Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases
R15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases
R15/29 Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gases
R16 Explosive when mixed with oxidising substances
R17 Spontaneously flammable in air
R18 In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
R19 May form explosive peroxides
R20 Harmful by inhalation
R20/21 Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
R20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R20/22 Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
R21 Harmful in contact with skin
R21/22 Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
R22 Harmful if swallowed
R23 Toxic by inhalation
R23/24 Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R23/24/25 Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R23/25 Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R24 Toxic in contact with skin
R24/25 Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R25 Toxic if swallowed
R26 Very toxic by inhalation
R26/27 Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R26/27/28 Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R26/28 Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R27 Very toxic in contact with skin
R27/28 Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R28 Very toxic if swallowed
R29 Contact with water liberates toxic gas
R30 Can become highly flammable in use
R31 Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
R32 Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
R33 Danger of cumulative effects
R34 Causes burns
R35 Causes severe burns
R36 Irritating to eyes
R36/37 Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
R36/37/38 Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
R36/38 Irritating to eyes and skin
R37 Irritating to respiratory system
R37/38 Irritating to respiratory system and skin
R38 Irritating to skin
R39 Danger of very serious irreversible effects
R39/23 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R39/23/24 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R39/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/23/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R39/24 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R39/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R39/26 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R39/26/27 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R39/26/27/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/26/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R39/27 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R39/27/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
R41 Risk of serious damage to eyes
R42 May cause sensitisation by inhalation
R43 May cause sensitisation by skin contact
R42/43 May cause sensitisation by inhalation and skin contact
R44 Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
R45 May cause cancer
R46 May cause heritable genetic damage
R48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure
R48/20 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R48/20/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R48/20/21/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R48/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R48/21/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R48/23 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R48/23/24 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R48/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/23/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R48/24 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R48/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure  in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure  if swallowed
R49 May cause cancer by inhalation
R50 Very toxic to aquatic organisms
R50/53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R51 Toxic to aquatic organisms
R51/53 Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R52 Harmful to aquatic organisms
R52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R53 May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R54 Toxic to flora
R55 Toxic to fauna
R56 Toxic to soil organisms
R57 Toxic to bees
R58 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment
R59 Dangerous for the ozone layer
R60 May impair fertility
R61 May cause harm to the unborn child
R62 Possible risk of impaired fertility
R63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child
R64 May cause harm to breast-fed babies
R65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed
R66 Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
R67 Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
R68 Possible risk of irreversible effects
R68/20 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation
R68/20/21 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R68/20/21/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R68/20/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R68/21 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin
R68/21/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R68/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed

Safety phrases

S1 Keep locked up
S(1/2) Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
S2 Keep out of the reach of children
S3 Keep in a cool place
S3/7 Keep container tightly closed in a cool place
S3/7/9 Keep container tightly closed in a cool, well-ventilated place
S3/9/14 Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S3/9/14/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S3/9/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place
S3/14 Keep in a cool place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S4 Keep away from living quarters
S5 Keep contents under ... (appropriate liquid to be specified by the manufacturer)
S6 Keep under ... (inert gas to be specified by the manufacturer)
S7 Keep container tightly closed
S7/8 Keep container tightly closed and dry
S7/9 Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place
S7/47 Keep container tightly closed and at temperature not exceeding ... OC (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S8 Keep container dry
S9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place
S12 Do not keep the container sealed
S13 Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs
S14 Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S15 Keep away from heat
S16 Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking
S17 Keep away from combustible material
S18 Handle and open container with care
S20 When using do not eat or drink
S20/21 When using do not eat, drink or smoke
S21 When using do not smoke
S22 Do not breathe dust
S23 Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)
S24 Avoid contact with skin
S24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes
S25 Avoid contact with eyes
S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S27 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing
S27/28 After contact with skin, take off immediately all contaminated clothing, and wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S28 After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S29 Do not empty into drains
S29/35 Do not empty into drains; dispose of this material and its container in a safe way
S29/56 Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point
S30 Never add water to this product
S33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges
S35 This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way
S36 Wear suitable protective clothing
S36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
S36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
S36/39 Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection
S37 Wear suitable gloves
S37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection
S38 In case of insufficient ventilation wear suitable respiratory equipment
S39 Wear eye/face protection
S40 To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material use ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S41 In case of fire and/or explosion do not breathe fumes
S42 During fumigation/spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)
S43 In case of fire use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases the risk add - Never use water)
S45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible)
S46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
S47 Keep at temperature not exceeding ... OC (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S47/49 Keep only in the original container at temperature not exceeding ... OC (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S48 Keep wet with ... (appropriate material to be specified by the manufacturer)
S49 Keep only in the original container
S50 Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S51 Use only in well-ventilated areas
S52 Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas
S53 Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use
S56 Dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point
S57 Use appropriate containment to avoid environmental contamination
S59 Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling
S60 This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste
S61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet
S62 If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
S63 In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest
S64 If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious)